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World Bank Intelligence specialist Appointed from Australia

 

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Business Intelligence specialist

The World Bank has appointed Paul Ormonde-James as the Head of Global Intelligence. This position consolidates many disciplines previously separated but now being combined for effectiveness and efficiency.

He brings a wealth of experience to the Bank which operates in 182 countries around the World and assists in Billions of dollars per annum in project and development support.

His current portfolio includes data warehouses, Advanced analytics, global reporting, content management, Knowledge Management, collaboration, Information architecture, records management and integration. Although it is a large portfolio, it indicates the relevance of complete integration rather than singular siloed approaches.

When Paul was asked the reasons why he would take on such a major challenge he stated “The professional challenge is substantial, but the need for change is fully supported by senior management, this makes it a lot easier. This aside, how many times in a career do you get to do something that makes a real difference in the World, to real people in need”

He has created a 4 year roadmap and now is moving ahead with implementation.

See the Paul Ormonde-James BLOG site HERE>>>>>

 

Paul Ormonde-James at World Bank

The Knowledge Bank

The World Bank has been criticised for the manner in which it engages in "the  production, accumulation, circulation and functioning" of knowledge. The Bank's  production of knowledge has become integral to the funding and justification of  large capital projects. The Bank relies on "a growing network of translocal  scientists, technocrats, NGOs, and empowered citizens to help generate data and  construct discursive strategies".[40] Its capacity to  produce authoritative knowledge is a response to intense scrutiny of Bank  projects resulting from the successes of growing anti-Bank and  alternative-development movements.[41] "Development has relied exclusively on one knowledge system, namely, the modern  Western one. The dominance of this knowledge system has dictated the  marginalization and disqualification of non-Western knowledge systems".[42] It has been  remarked that in these alternative knowledge systems, researchers and activists  might find alternative rationales to guide interventionist action away from  Western (Bank-produced) ways of thinking. Knowledge production has become an  asset to the Bank, and "it is generated and used in highly strategic ways"[41] to provide justifications for development.

Reference Wikipedia

The World Bank -

Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Bank

 

History

 

John Maynard Keynes (right) represented the United Kingdom at the  conference, and Harry Dexter White (left) represented the United  States.

The World Bank is one of five institutions created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. The International Monetary Fund, a  related institution, is the second. Delegates from many countries attended the  Bretton Woods Conference. The most powerful countries in attendance were the United States and United Kingdom which  dominated negotiations.[4]

Although both are based in Washington, D.C., the World Bank is by custom  headed by an American, while the IMF is led by a European.

 

 

1945-1968

From its conception until 1967 the bank undertook a relatively low level of  lending. Fiscal  conservatism and careful screening of loan applications was common. Bank  staff attempted to balance the priorities of providing loans for reconstruction  and development with the need to instill confidence in the bank.[5]

Bank president John  McCloy selected France to be the first recipient of World Bank aid; two  other applications from Poland and Chile were rejected. The loan was for $987  million, half the amount requested and came with strict conditions. Staff from  the World Bank monitored the use of the funds, ensuring that the French  government would present a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment  to the World Bank over other governments. The United States State Department  told the French government that communist elements within the Cabinet needed to be  removed. The French Government complied with this diktat and removed the Communist coalition  government. Within hours the loan to France was approved.[6]

The Marshall Plan of  1947 caused lending by the bank to change as many European countries received  aid that competed with World Bank loans. Emphasis was shifted to non-European  countries and until 1968, loans were earmarked for projects that would enable a  borrower country to repay loans (such projects as ports, highway systems, and  power plants).

1968 - 1980

From 1968 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people  in the developing world.[citation needed] The size  and number of loans to borrowers was greatly increased as loan targets expanded  from infrastructure into social services and other sectors.[citation needed]

These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara who was appointed to the  presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson.[7] McNamara imported a technocratic managerial style to the Bank that he had used  as United States Secretary of Defense and President of the Ford Motor  Company.[8] McNamara shifted  bank policy toward measures such as building schools and hospitals, improving literacy and agricultural reform.  McNamara created a new system of gathering information from potential borrower  nations that enabled the bank to process loan applications much faster. To  finance more loans, McNamara told bank treasurer Eugene  Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks  that had been the primary sources of bank funding. Rotberg used the global bond  market to increase the capital available to the bank.[9] One  consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of third world debt. From 1976 to  1980 developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%.[10][11]

1980 - 1989

In 1980 A.W. Clausen replaced McNamara after being  nominated by US President Jimmy Carter. Clausen replaced a large number of  bank staffers from the McNamara era and instituted a new ideological focus in  the bank. The replacement of Chief Economist Hollis B. Chenery by Anne Krueger in 1982 marked a  notable policy shift at the bank. Krueger was known for her criticism of  development funding as well as third world governments as rent-seeking states.

Lending to service third world debt marked the period of 1980–1989. Structural  adjustment policies aimed at streamlining the economies of developing  nations (at the expense of health and social services) were also a large part of  World Bank policy during this period. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural  adjustment programs of the World Bank were responsible for the "reduced health,  nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia,  Latin America, and Africa".[12]

1989 - present

From 1989 World Bank policy changed in response to criticism from many  groups. Environmental groups and NGOs were incorporated in the lending of the  bank in order to mitigate the effects of the past that prompted such harsh  criticism.[13] Bank projects  "include" green concerns.

 

 

The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Millennium Development  Goals

The World Bank's current focus is on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals  (MDGs), lending primarily to "middle-income countries" at interest rates which  reflect a small mark-up over its own (AAA-rated) borrowings from capital  markets; while the IDA provides low or no interest loans and grants to low income countries with little or no  access to international credit markets. The IBRD is a market-based nonprofit organization, using its high  credit rating to make up for the relatively low interest rate on its loans,  while the IDA is funded primarily by periodic "replenishments" (grants) voted to  the institution by its more affluent member countries. The Bank's mission is to  aid developing countries and their inhabitants to achieve development and the  reduction of poverty, including achievement of the MDGs, by helping countries  develop an environment for investment, jobs and sustainable growth, thus  promoting economic growth through investment and enabling the poor to share the  fruits of economic growth.

Key Factors

The World Bank sees the five key factors necessary for economic growth and  the creation of an enabling business environment as:

  1. Build capacity: Strengthening governments and educating government  officials.
  2. Infrastructure creation: implementation of legal and judicial systems  for the encouragement of business, the protection of individual and property  rights and the honoring of contracts.
  3. Development of Financial Systems: the establishment of strong systems  capable of supporting endeavors from micro credit to the financing of larger  corporate ventures.
  4. Combating corruption: Support for countries' efforts at eradicating  corruption.
  5. Research, Consultancy and Training: the World Bank provides platform  for research on development issues, consultancy and conduct training programs  (web based, on line, tele-/video conferencing and class room based) open for  those who are interested from academia, students, government and  non-governmental organization (NGO) officers etc.

The Bank obtains funding for its operations primarily through the IBRD's sale  of AAA-rated bonds in the world's financial markets. The IBRD's income is  generated from its lending activities, with its borrowings leveraging its own  paid-in capital, plus the investment of its "float". The IDA obtains the  majority of its funds from forty donor countries who replenish the bank's funds  every three years, and from loan repayments, which then become available for  re-lending.

Criteria

Many achievements have brought the MDG targets for 2015 within reach in some  cases. For the goals to be realized, six criteria must be met: stronger and more  inclusive growth in Africa and fragile states, more effort in health and  education, integration of the development and environment agendas, more and  better aid, movement on trade negotiations, and stronger and more focused  support from multilateral institutions like the World Bank.

  1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger: From 1990 through 2004, the  proportion of people living in extreme poverty fell from almost a third to less  than a fifth. Although results vary widely within regions and countries, the  trend indicates that the world as a whole can meet the goal of halving the  percentage of people living in poverty. Africa's poverty, however, is expected  to rise, and most of the 36 countries where 90% of the world's undernourished  children live are in Africa. Less than a quarter of countries are on track for  achieving the goal of halving under-nutrition.
  2. Achieve Universal Primary Education: The number of children in school  in developing countries increased from 80% in 1991 to 88% in 2005. Still, about  72 million children of primary school age, 57% of them girls, were not being  educated as of 2005.
  3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women: The tide is turning slowly  for women in the labor market, yet far more women than men- worldwide more than  60% - are contributing but unpaid family workers. The World Bank Group Gender  Action Plan was created to advance women's economic empowerment and promote  shared growth.
  4. Reduce Child Mortality: There is some improvement in survival rates  globally; accelerated improvements are needed most urgently in South Asia and  Sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 10 million-plus children under five died in  2005; most of their deaths were from preventable causes.
  5. Improve Maternal Health: Almost all of the half million women who die  during pregnancy or childbirth every year live in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.  There are numerous causes of maternal death that require a variety of health  care interventions to be made widely accessible.
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases: Annual numbers of new  HIV infections and AIDS deaths have fallen, but the number of people living with  HIV continues to grow. In the eight worst-hit southern African countries,  prevalence is above 15 percent. Treatment has increased globally, but still  meets only 30 percent of needs (with wide variations across countries). AIDS  remains the leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa (1.6 million deaths in  2007). There are 300 to 500 million cases of malaria each year, leading to more  than 1 million deaths. Nearly all the cases and more than 95 percent of the  deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability: Deforestation remains a critical  problem, particularly in regions of biological diversity, which continues to  decline. Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing faster than energy technology  advancement.
  8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development: Donor countries have  renewed their commitment. Donors have to fulfill their pledges to match the  current rate of core program development. Emphasis is being placed on the Bank  Group's collaboration with multilateral and local partners to quicken progress  toward the MDGs' realization.

Leadership

The President of the Bank, currently Robert B.  Zoellick, is responsible for chairing the meetings of the Boards of  Directors and for overall management of the Bank. Traditionally, the Bank  President has always been a US citizen nominated by the United States, the  largest shareholder in the bank. The nominee is subject to confirmation by the  Board of Governors, to serve for a five-year, renewable term.[14]

The Executive Directors, representing the Bank's member countries, make up  the Board of Directors, usually meeting twice a week to oversee activities such  as the approval of loans and guarantees, new policies, the administrative  budget, country assistance strategies and borrowing and financing decisions.

The Vice Presidents of the Bank are its principal managers, in charge of  regions, sectors, networks and functions. There are 24 Vice-Presidents, three  Senior Vice Presidents and two Executive Vice Presidents.

Members

Main article: List  of World Bank members

The International  Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has 186 member countries,  while the International Development  Association (IDA) has 168 members.[15] Each  member state of IBRD should be also a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)  and only members of IBRD are allowed to join other institutions within the Bank  (such as IDA).[16]

Voting power

In 2010, voting powers at the World Bank were revised to increase the voice  of developing countries, notably China. The countries with most voting power are  now the United States  (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), China (4.42%), Germany (4.00%), the United Kingdom (3.75%), and France (3.75%). Under the changes, known as 'Voice  Reform - Phase 2', other countries that saw significant gains included Brazil, India, South Korea and Mexico. Most developed countries' voting power was  reduced. Russia's voting power was  unchanged. [17][18]

Poverty reduction  strategies

For the poorest developing countries in the world, the  bank's assistance plans are based on poverty reduction strategies;  by combining a cross-section of local groups with an extensive analysis of the  country's financial and economic situation the World Bank develops a strategy  pertaining uniquely to the country in question. The government then identifies  the country's priorities and targets for the reduction of poverty, and the World  Bank aligns its aid efforts correspondingly.

Forty-five countries pledged US$25.1 billion in "aid for the world's poorest  countries", aid that goes to the World Bank International Development  Association (IDA) which distributes the gifts to eighty poorer countries.  While wealthier nations sometimes fund their own aid projects, including those  for diseases, and although IDA is the recipient of criticism, Robert B.  Zoellick, the president of the World Bank, said when the gifts were announced on  December 15, 2007, that IDA money "is the core funding that the poorest  developing countries rely on".[19]

[edit]Clean Technology  Fund management

The World Bank has been assigned temporary management responsibility of the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), focused on  making renewable  energy cost-competitive with coal-fired power as quickly as possible, but  this may not continue after UN's Copenhagen climate change conference in  December, 2009, because of the Bank's continued investment in coal-fired power plants.[20]

Clean Air Initiative

Clean Air Initiative (CAI) [21] is a World Bank  initiative to advance innovative ways to improve air quality in cities through  partnerships in selected regions of the world by sharing knowledge and  experiences. It includes electric vehicles.

Country assistance  strategies

As a guideline to the World Bank's operations in any particular country, a  Country Assistance Strategy is produced, in cooperation with the local  government and any interested stakeholders and may rely on analytical work  performed by the Bank or other parties.

Effectiveness

The World Bank has long been criticized by non-governmental organizations,  such as the indigenous rights group Survival International, and academics,  including its former Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz who is equally critical of the International Monetary Fund, the US Treasury Department, US and other developed  country trade negotiators.[22] Critics  argue that the so-called free  market reform policies which the Bank advocates are often harmful to economic  development if implemented badly, too quickly ("shock  therapy"), in the wrong sequence or in weak, uncompetitive economies.[22][23]

In Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations (1996), Catherine Caufield argued that the assumptions and structure of the  World Bank harms southern nations. Caufield criticized its formulaic recipes of  "development". To the World Bank, different nations and regions are  indistinguishable and ready to receive the "uniform remedy of development". She  argued that to attain even modest success, Western practices are adopted and  traditional economic structures and values abandoned. A second assumption is  that poor countries cannot modernize without money and advice from abroad.

A number of intellectuals in developing countries have argued that the World  Bank is deeply implicated in contemporary modes of donor and NGO imperialism, and that its  intellectual contributions function to blame the poor for their condition.[24]

One of the strongest criticisms of the World Bank has been the way in which  it is governed. While the World Bank represents 186 countries, it is run by a  small number of economically powerful countries. These countries choose the  leadership and senior management of the World Bank, and so their interests  dominate the bank.[25]

The World Bank has dual roles that are contradictory: that of a political  organization and that of a practical organization. As a political organization,  the World Bank must meet the demands of donor and borrowing governments, private  capital markets, and other international organizations. As an action-oriented  organization, it must be neutral, specializing in development aid, technical  assistance, and loans. The World Bank's obligations to donor countries and  private capital markets have caused it to adopt policies which dictate that  poverty is best alleviated by the implementation of "market" policies.[26]

In the 1990s, the World Bank and the IMF forged the Washington  Consensus, policies which included deregulation and liberalization of markets, privatization and the downscaling of  government. Though the Washington Consensus was conceived as a policy that  would best promote development, it was criticized for ignoring equity,  employment and how reforms like privatization were carried out. Many now agree [citation needed] that the  Washington Consensus placed too much emphasis on the growth of GDP, and not  enough on the permanence of growth or on whether growth contributed to better  living standards.[27]

Some analysis shows that the World Bank has increased poverty and been  detrimental to the environment, public health and cultural  diversity.[28] Some critics also  claim that the World Bank has consistently pushed a neoliberal agenda, imposing policies on  developing countries which have been damaging, destructive and  anti-developmental.[29][30]

It has also been suggested that the World Bank is an instrument for the  promotion of US or Western interests in certain regions of the world. Even South  American nations have established the Bank of the South in order to reduce US  influence in the region.[31] Criticism of the  bank, that the President is always a citizen of the United States, nominated by  the President of the United States (though subject to the "approval" of the  other member countries). There have been accusations that the decision-making  structure is undemocratic as the US has a veto on some constitutional decisions  with just over 16% of the shares in the bank;[32] Decisions can  only be passed with votes from countries whose shares total more than 85% of the  bank's shares.[33] A further  criticism concerns internal management and the manner in which the World Bank is  said to lack accountability.[34]

Criticism of the World Bank often takes the form of protesting as seen in recent events  such as the World Bank Oslo 2002  Protests,[35] the October  Rebellion,[36] and  the Battle  of Seattle.[37] Such  demonstrations have occurred all over the world, even amongst the Brazilian Kayapo people.[38]

In 2008, a World Bank report which found that biofuels had driven food prices  up 75% was not published. Officials confided that they believed it was  suppressed to avoid embarrassing the then-President of the United States, George  W. Bush.[39]

The World Bank has also been criticized for not publishing reports related to  the Palestinian economic situation in the West Bank and Gaza. Economists in the  region have often written damning reports of the Israeli occupation and its  effects on the economy, but these reports remain internal and are not  published.

Although controversial and far from proven, there is criticism that World  Bank and IMF are used as a means to fulfill business (interests of large  corporations to enter the natural resource markets of the country and obtain the  legal guarantees that it can stay there) or political needs of the main IMF  donors (mostly USA), that were previously historically obtained by more direct  activity - war, economic blockade, espionage. See for example Confessions of an Economic Hit  Man.

Knowledge production

The World Bank has been criticised for the manner in which it engages in "the  production, accumulation, circulation and functioning" of knowledge. The Bank's  production of knowledge has become integral to the funding and justification of  large capital projects. The Bank relies on "a growing network of translocal  scientists, technocrats, NGOs, and empowered citizens to help generate data and  construct discursive strategies".[40] Its capacity to  produce authoritative knowledge is a response to intense scrutiny of Bank  projects resulting from the successes of growing anti-Bank and  alternative-development movements.[41] "Development has relied exclusively on one knowledge system, namely, the modern  Western one. The dominance of this knowledge system has dictated the  marginalization and disqualification of non-Western knowledge systems".[42] It has been  remarked that in these alternative knowledge systems, researchers and activists  might find alternative rationales to guide interventionist action away from  Western (Bank-produced) ways of thinking. Knowledge production has become an  asset to the Bank, and "it is generated and used in highly strategic ways"[41] to provide justifications for development.

Structural  adjustment

The effect of structural adjustment policies on poor  countries has been one of the most significant criticisms of the World Bank. The 1979 energy  crisis plunged many countries into economic crises.[43] The World Bank responded with structural adjustment loans which distributed aid  to struggling countries while enforcing policy changes in order to reduce  inflation and fiscal imbalance. Some of these policies included encouraging  production, investment and labour-intensive manufacturing, changing real exchange  rates and altering the distribution of government resources.[44] Structural adjustment policies were most effective in countries with an  institutional framework that allowed these policies to be implemented  easily.[44] For some  countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth regressed and  inflation worsened.[44] The  alleviation of poverty was not a goal of structural adjustment loans, and the  circumstances of the poor often worsened, due to a reduction in social spending  and an increase in the price of food, as subsidies were lifted.[44]

By the late 1980s, international organizations began to admit that structural  adjustment policies were worsening life for the world's poor. The World Bank  changed structural adjustment loans, allowing for social spending to be  maintained, and encouraging a slower change to policies such as transfer of  subsidies and price rises.[45] In 1999, the World  Bank and the IMF introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach to  replace structural adjustment loans.[46] The Poverty  Reduction Strategy Paper approach has been interpreted as an extension of  structural adjustment policies as it continues to reinforce and legitimize  global inequities.[47] Neither approach  has addressed the inherent flaws within the global economy that contribute to  economic and social inequities within developing countries.[48] By reinforcing the relationship between lending and client states, many believe  that the World Bank has usurped indebted countries' power to determine their own  economic policy.[49]

Water privatization

Sociologist Michael Goldman has argued that "Industry analysts predict that  private water will soon be a capitalized market as precious, and as  war-provoking, as oil".[50] Goldman  says "These days, an indebted country cannot borrow capital from the World Bank  or IMF without a domestic water privatization policy as a  precondition".[50] The Bank  is utilizing "the 'Washington Consensus' model of  "development" to promote water privatization. Following this model, the World  Bank is forcing many countries to commodify their water resources, rather than  using their expertise in the public sector to acknowledge water as a universal  human right and an essential public service".[50] The push  for water privatization development plays upon "the shocking tragedy that much  of the world lacks affordable clean water". This image creates "new  opportunities in development, though it may have little to do with ultimately  quenching" the needs of impoverished countries. "The problem of water scarcity  for the world's poor has been analyzed by the World Bank as one in which the  public sector has failed to deliver, and has therefore prevented development  from "taking off", and the economy from modernizing. If the state cannot deliver  something as basic as water and sanitation, the argument goes, it is a strong  indication of a general failure of public-sector capacity".[50] However,  "with the sale or lease of a public good comes more than simply a privatized  service; alongside it comes a wide set of postcolonial institutional forces that  intervene in state-citizen relations and North-South dynamics".[51] One notable  example is the privatation of water forced upon  Bolivians by the World Bank which led to multiple protests including the 2000  Cochabamba protests.

Sovereign immunity

Despite claiming goals of "good governance and anti-corruption″[52] the World Bank  requires sovereign  immunity from countries it deals with.[53][54][55][56][57] Sovereign immunity  waives a holder from all legal liability for their actions. It is proposed that  this immunity from responsibility is a "shield which [The World Bank] wants  resort to, for escaping accountability and security by the people."[53] As the United States has veto  power, it can prevent the World Bank from taking action against its  interests.[53]

Environmental  strategy

The World Bank's ongoing work to develop a strategy on climate change and  environmental threats has been criticized for (i) lacking of a proper overall  vision and purpose, (ii) having a limited focus on its own role in global and  regional governance, and (iii) having limited recognition of specific regional  issues, e.g. issues of rights to food and land, and sustainable land use.  Critics have also commented that only 1% of the World Bank's lending goes to the  environmental sector, narrowly defined.[58]

Environmentalists are urging the Bank to stop worldwide support for the  development of coal plants and other large emitters of greenhouse gas and  operations that are proven to pollute or damage the environment. For instance,  protesters in South Africa and abroad have criticized the 2010 decision of the  World Bank's approval for a $3.75 billion loan to build the world's 4th largest  coal-fired power plant in South Africa. The plant will greatly increase the  demand for coal mining and corresponding harmful environmental effects of  coal.[59]

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